**Sorting - linked list:**there are many algorithms to sort a linked list like the bubble sort, merge sort, etc.

so today we are going to sort a linked list by exchanging the values of nodes using the bubble sort algorithm.

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__Sorting a linked list using the bubble sort algorithm__

In a bubble to sort a linked list that has n items, we need to iterate over the list n-1 times. like in the example we have a list of 5 items then we need to iterate over the list for 4 times.to sort a linked list first we need three references p, q, and end. in the first iteration, we set the end variable to None. and in every iteration, we set the p variable to the first node of the list and the q variable to the second node of the list.

if in the iteration the value of the linked part of node p is equal to the end then we break the iteration and continue to the next iteration.

if the info part of node p is greater than the info part of node q then we swap the values of node p and q otherwise we refer p and q to the next node of the list.

so in the given example list, the value of node p is not greater than the value of the q node so we refer p and q to the next node of the list.

here also the value of node p is not greater than the value of node q so we go to the next nodes.

here the value of node p is greater than the value of node q so we swap them.

next, we go to the next nodes here the value of node p is not greater than the value of node q so we don't swap them.

now we go to the next nodes of the list. here the value of the linked part of node p is equal to the end variable. so here the first iteration ends.

now after iteration one ends, the last node of the list becomes sorted so we refer the end variable to the last node of the list.

now the second iteration starts and in the second iteration, we refer the variables p and q to the first and second node of the list and swap values of nodes p and q if the values of node p are greater than the value of node q.

this condition will run till the linked part of node p does not become equal to the end variable. as you see in the images given below.

and after every iteration, we update the value of the variable end. because if we iterate the list over two times then the last two nodes of the list become sorted. so we don't need to check them again.

so after performing the n-1 iterations over the linked list. where n is the size of the list. now our list becomes sorted.

def bubble_sort_exdata(self): end = None while end != self.start.link: p = self.start while p.link != end: q = p.link if p.info > q.info: p.info, q.info = q.info, p.info p = p.link end = p

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__Python program for traversing the linked list.__

class Node: def __init__(self, value): self.info = value self.link = None class SingleLinkedList: def __init__(self): self.start = None def display_list(self): if self.start is None: print("List is empty") return else: print("List is : ") p = self.start while p is not None: print(p.info, " ", end=' ') p = p.link print() def count_nodes(self): p = self.start n = 0 while p is not None: n += 1 p = p.link print("Number of nodes in the list = ", n) def search(self): position = 1 p = self.start while p is not None: if p.info == x: print(x, " is at position ", position) return True position += 1 p = p.link else: print(x, " not found in list") return False def insert_in_beginning(self, data): temp = Node(data) temp.link = self.start self.start = temp def insert_at_end(self, data): temp = Node(data) if self.start is None: self.start = temp return p = self.start while p.link is not None: p = p.link p.link = temp def create_list(self): n = int(input("Enter the number of nodes : ")) if n == 0: return for i in range(n): data = int(input("Enter the element to be inserted : ")) self.insert_at_end(data) def insert_after(self, data, x): p = self.start while p is not None: if p.info == x: break p = p.link if p is None: print(x, "not present in the list") else: temp = Node(data) temp.link = p.link p.link = temp def insert_before(self, data, x): # If list is empty if self.start is None: print("List is empty") return if x == self.start.info: temp = Node(data) temp.link = self.start self.start = temp return p = self.start while p.link is not None: if p.link.info == x: break p = p.link if p.link is None: print(x, " not present in the list") else: temp = Node(data) temp.link = p.link p.link = temp def insert_at_position(self, data, k): if k == 1: temp = Node(data) temp.link = self.start self.start = temp return p = self.start i = 1 while i < k - 1 and p is not None: p = p.link i += 1 if p is None: print("You can insert only upto position", i) else: temp = Node(data) temp.link = p.link p.link = temp def delete_node(self, x): if self.start is None: print("List is empty") if self.start.info == x: self.start = self.start.link return p = self.start while p.link is not None: if p.link.info == x: break p = p.link if p.link is None: print("Element ", x , "not in list") else: p.link = p.link.link def delete_first_node(self): if self.start is None: return self.start = self.start.link def delete_last_node(self): if self.start is None: return if self.start.link is None: self.start = None return p = self.start while p.link.link is not None: p = p.link p.link = None def reverse_list(self): prev = None p = self.start while p is not None: next = p.link p.link = prev prev = p p = next self.start = prev def bubble_sort_exdata(self): end = None while end != self.start.link: p = self.start while p.link != end: q = p.link if p.info > q.info: p.info, q.info = q.info, p.info p = p.link end = p def bubble_sort_exlinks(self): end = None while end != self.start.link: r = p = self.start while p.link != end: q = p.link if p.info > q.info : p.link = q.link q.link = p if p != self.start: r.link = q else: self.start = q p,q = q,p r = p p = p.link end = p def has_cycle(self): if self.find_cycle() is None: return False else: return True def find_cycle(self): if self.start is None or self.start.link is None: return None slowR = self.start fastR = self.start while fastR is not None and fastR.link is not None: slowR = slowR.link fastR = fastR.link.link if slowR == fastR: return slowR return None def remove_cycle(self): c = self.find_cycle() if c is None: return print("Node at which the cycle was detected is ", c.info) p = c q = c len_cycle = 0 while True: len_cycle+=1 q = q.link if p == q: break print("Length of cycle is :", len_cycle) len_rem_list = 0 p = self.start while p != q: len_rem_list+=1 p = p.link q = q.link print("Number of nodes not included in the cycle are : ", len_rem_list) length_list = len_cycle + len_rem_list print("Length of the list is : ", length_list) p = self.start for i in range(length_list-1): p = p.link p.link = None def insert_cycle(self, x): if self.start is None: return p = self.start px = None prev = None while p is not None: if p.info == x: px = p prev = p p = p.link if px is not None: prev.link = px else: print(x, " not present in list") def merge2(self, list2): merge_list = SingleLinkedList() merge_list.start = self._merge2(self.start, list2.start) return merge_list def _merge2(self, p1, p2): if p1.info <= p2.info: startM = p1 p1 = p1.link else: startM = p2 p2 = p2.link pM = startM while p1 is not None and p2 is not None: if p1.info <= p2.info: pM.link = p1 pM = pM.link p1 = p1.link else: pM.link = p2 pM = pM.link p2 = p2.link if p1 is None: pM.link = p2 else: pM.link = p1 return startM def merge_sort(self): self.start = self._merge_sort_rec(self.start) def _merge_sort_rec(self, list_start): if list_start is None or list_start.link is None: return list_start start1 = list_start start2 = self._divide_list(list_start) start1 = self._merge_sort_rec(start1) start2 = self._merge_sort_rec(start2) startM = self._merge2(start1, start2) return startM def _divide_list(self, p): q = p.link.link while q is not None and q.link is not None: p = p.link q = q.link.link start2 = p.link p.link = None return start2 ########################## list = SingleLinkedList() list.create_list() while True: print("1. Display list") print("2. Count the number of nodes") print("3. Search for an element") print("4. Insert in empty list/insert in beginning of the list") print("5. Insert a node at the end of the list") print("6. Insert a node after a specified node") print("7. Insert a node before a specified node") print("8. Insert a node at a given position") print("9. Delete first node") print("10. Delete last node") print("11. Delete any node") print("12. Reverse the list") print("13. Bubble sort by exchanging data") print("14. Bubble sort by exchanging links") print("15. Merge sort") print("16. Insert Cycle") print("17. Detect Cycle") print("18. Remove Cycle") print("19. Quite") option = int(input("Enter your choice")) if option == 1: list.display_list() elif option == 2: list.count_nodes() elif option == 3: data = int(input("Enter the element to be searched : ")) list.search(data) elif option == 4: data = int(input("Enter the element to be inserted : ")) list.insert_in_beginning(data) elif option == 5: data = int(input("Enter the element to be inserted : ")) list.insert_at_end(data) elif option == 6: data = int(input("Enter the element to be inserted : ")) x = int(input("Enter the element after which to insert : ")) list.insert_after(data, x) elif option == 7: data = int(input("Enter the element to be inserted : ")) x = int(input("Enter the element before which to insert : ")) list.insert_before(data, x) elif option == 8: data = int(input("Enter the element to be inserted : ")) k = int(input("Enter the position at which to insert : ")) list.insert_at_position(data, k) elif option == 9: list.delete_first_node() elif option == 10: list.delete_last_node() elif option == 11: data = int(input("Enter the element to be deleted : ")) list.delete_node(data) elif option == 12: list.reverse_list() elif option == 13: list.bubble_sort_exdata() elif option == 14: list.bubble_sort_exlinks() elif option == 15: list.merge_sort() elif option == 16: data = int(input("Enter the element at which the cycle has to be inserted : ")) list.insert_cycle(data) elif option == 17: if list.has_cycle(): print("List has a cycle") else: print("List does not have a cycle") elif option == 18: list.remove_cycle() elif option == 19: break else: print("Wrong option") print()

Also, read other tutorials as well

- What are Data Structures and algorithms
- Algorithm design and analysis
- Classification of algorithms
- How to calculate the running time of an algorithm.
- Worst Average and Best-case analysis of the algorithm.
- Big o notation
- Big o notation examples
- Linked List in Data Structures
- Traversing in Linked list
- Operations on the linked list
- Insertion in the linked list
- Deletion in a linked list
- Reversing a linked list
- Find and remove the loop in the linked list
- Doubly linked list
- Insertion in the doubly linked list
- Deletion in the doubly linked list
- Reversing a doubly linked list
- Circular linked list
- Insertion in the circular linked list
- Deletion in the circular linked list
- Merge two linked list
- Header linked list
- Sorted linked list
- Stack in data structures
- Queue in data structures
- Circular queue
- Dequeue in the data structure
- Priority queue
- Polish notation
- Tree in the data structure
- Binary tree
- Array representation of the binary tree
- linked representation of a binary tree
- Traversing in the binary tree
- Inorder traversal in the binary tree
- Preorder traversal in the binary tree
- Postorder traversal in the binary tree
- Level order traversal in the binary tree
- Binary search tree
- Insertion in the binary search tree
- Deletion in the binary search tree
- Heap in data structures

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