Contiki is an operating system like Microsoft Windows and LINUX for IoT that specifically targets small IoT devices with limited memory, power, bandwidth, and processing power. It provides functionality for the management of programs, processes, resources, memory, and communication. Many academics, organization researchers, and professionals consider it a go-to OS. Contiki only requires a few kilobytes to run, and within a space of under 30KB, it fits its entire operating system - a web browser, web server, calculator, shell, telnet client and daemon, email client, vnc viewer, and FTP. 

Things are also referred to as smart objects which collect valuable data from the surroundings and communicate to the networked system. Thereby smart objects become a bridge between the real and virtual worlds. They contain sensors, microprocessors, communication, and power source. The operating system (OS) in these objects controls all of its operations.

What is Contiki - Definition

Contiki is an open-source software project with the vision to create a minimalist working OS for wide deployment. This project has broken many myths about the small footprint in which an OS can be stored and made to function. One such software ulPv6-world's smallest IPV6 stack-which is integrated into Contiki. While there are me similar OS such as TinyOS, what makes Contiki different is the completeness and flexibility it offers to the programmers. Contiki comes with much documentation apart from w documented code. 

Functions of Contiki

  1. Process and Memory Management: Contiki supports memory block allocation and standard 'C style allocation with malloc( ). The concept and implementation of 'protothreads' have been introduced keeping the low system requirements in mind 'protothreads' are C-language-based implementations minimizing the overhead of multi-threaded programming. 
  2. Communication Management: Contiki supports both IPy4 and IPV6 stack implementations, which include TCP, UDP, and HTTP protocols with the smallest footprints. The IP stack is standards-compliant. The OS also supports low-power variants such as 6LOWPAN. 
  3. File System Management: Not all devices as part of IoT have the luxury of persistent storage such as Flash. But for such devices, Contiki provides support through the Coffee Flash file system. 
  4. Applications of Contiki OS: There are more applications, that come in a package as a part of Contiki OS. Those include a small net browser, net server, calculator, shell, telnet patron and daemon, e-mail customer, the vnc viewer, and FTP.

Contiki OS additionally provides mechanisms to measure strength for various operations that help developers produce programs that are power sensitive. The software package deal additionally comes with a UNIX-style shell for interacting with OS and debugging 

Communication Components in Contiki OS 

Contiki OS supports protocols for IoT: 
  1. 6LOWPAN: This stands for IPV6 over low-energy wi-fi personal place networks, It provides a compression era to guide the low information charge wi-fi wished by means of devices with restrained resources. 
  2. RPL: This distance vector IPV6 protocol for LLNS (Low-Strength and Lossy Networks) permits the quality viable path to be discovered in a complicated network of devices with various capacities. 
  3. COAP: This protocol helps communication for simple devices, generally gadgets requiring heavy remote supervision.
  4. ulP (for IPv6): This TCP/IP implementation is used for 8-bit and 16-bit microcontrollers. 
  5. ulPv6 (for IPV6): This is a fully compliant IPV6 extension to ulP. 
communication components in contiki os
Fig. Communication Components in Contiki OS

Applications 

There are several applications that come packaged as part of Contiki. These include a small Web browser, Web server, calculator, shell, telnet client and daemon, email client, vne viewer, and FTP.
 
Developers can find tools such as the Cooja simulator for application development, Contiki also provides mechanisms to measure power for various operations that help developers produce applications that are power-sensitive. The software bundle also comes with a UNIXX- style shell for interacting with OS and debugging. 

Various functions of an OS consist of software/technique control, useful resource manipulation, memory management, and verbal exchange management. The goal of Contiki OS is to fulfill the requirements of the smallest gadgets together with clever dirt. Things need to be able to talk some bits of information to one another. One such software program is the ulPv6-global's smallest IPV6 stack-which is incorporated into Contiki OS. 

We are all surrounded by a number of gadgets, mobile devices, smartphones, wireless nodes, and many other objects that are digitally connected in real time. The Internet of Things (IoT) enables real-world objects to interact with each other. These objects can share information and communicate in real-time to deliver better performance as well as security. lol works by developing and integrating smart objects that can be controlled using remote network infrastructure.

Radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags and sensors are the most important components of IoT. The RFID tags can be embedded in real-world devices and obi which can be monitored remotely using software-based applications. RFID readers can be used to locate, read and sense RFID implanted objects. Very small, micro-sized transmitting and receiving chips are integrated with RFID to help them communicate with distant objects.

Contiki is a popular, free and open-source operating system for lof programming available under the BSD license with the base code of the C programming language., Cont can be used for communication between low-powered RFID chips in wireless networks. with a high degree of performance and security. 

The programming on Contiki is done using the Cooja network simulator, in which base libraries of RFID chips and sensors are available in C. To program, control and monitor the remote IoT devices, the back-end C programs, and related header files can be customized and recompiled to get the desired results. Contiki works on IPV4 as well as with the integration of lightweight protocols so that low-power chips and radio frequency chips can be connected without performance issues.
contiki
Fig. Contiki