There are different areas in which intelligent applications have been developed, Some uses of IoT applications are in home automation, fitness tracking, health monitoring, environment protection, smart cities, and industrial settings.

Applications of loT - Overview

Home Automation 

Nowadays Smart homes are becoming very popular because the sensor and actuation technologies along with wireless sensor networks have significantly matured, people trust technology to address their concerns about their quality of life and the security of their homes. In smart homes, various sensors are deployed, which provide intelligent and automated services to the user. They help with daily tasks. They help in energy conservation by turning off lights and electronic gadgets automatically. For this, we use motion sensors. Motion sensors can also be used for security. 

Smart home applications are really beneficial. In smart homes, CCTV cameras can be used to record events of interest. These can then be used for feature extraction to find out what is going on. There are many challenges with regard to smart home applications. The most important are security and privacy. If the security of the system is not guaranteed, hackers may attack the system and make the system malicious. Smart home systems are supposed to notify the owners in case they detect such abnormalities. This is possible using Al and machine learning algorithms. 

Smart Cities 

Smart Transport

Smart transport applications can manage daily traffic in cities using sensors and intelligent information processing systems. The purpose of intelligent transport systems is to minimize traffic congestion, ensure easy and hassle-free parking, and avoid accidents by properly routing traffic and spotting drunk drivers. The sensor technologies are GPS sensors for location, accelerometers for speed, gyroscopes for direction, RFIDS for vehicle identification, infrared sensors for counting passengers and vehicles, and cameras for recording vehicle movement and traffic. There are many types of applications.

  1. Traffic Surveillance and Management Applications: Vehicles are connected to each other, through the network in the cloud, and to a host of IoT devices such as GPS sensors, RFID devices, and cameras. These devices can estimate traffic conditions in different parts of the city. Traffic congestion detection can also be implemented using smartphone sensors such as accelerometers and GPS sensors. These applications can detect the movement patterns of the vehicle while the user is driving. This type of information is collected by Google maps and users are using it to route around potentially congested areas of the city. 
  2. Applications to Ensure Safety: Smart transport does not only provide manage traffic conditions. It also supports the safety of people traveling in their vehicles. There are many IoT applications developed to help drivers become safer drivers. Technologies used in such applications are face detection, eye movement detection, and pressure detection on the steering. 
  3. Intelligent Parking Management: In a smart transportation system, we can easily check on the Internet to find out which parking lot has free spaces. Such lots use sensors to detect if the slots are free or occupied by vehicles. This data is then uploaded to a central server. 
  4. Smart Traffic Lights: traffic lights equipped with sense. processing and communication capabilities are called smart traffic lights. These lights sense the traffic congestion at the intersection and the amount of traffic going each way. This information can be analyzed and then sent to neighboring traffic lights or a central controller. It is possible to use this information creatively. For example, in an emergency situation, the traffic lights can give way to an ambulance.

Smart Water Systems

Water scarcity is increasing in most parts of the world, and it is very important to save our water resources efficiently. So most cities are opting for smart solutions that place a lot of meters on water supply lines and storm drains. They describe various designs for smart water meters. Meters can be used to measure the degree of water inflow and outflow and to identify possible leaks. Smart water metering systems are also used in conjunction with data from weather satellites and river water sensors. 

Social Life and Entertainment

Social life and entertainment play a vital role in human life. Many applications have been developed, which keep track of such human activities. Personal devices such as tablets, wearables, and mobile phones have sensing and short-range communication capabilities. People can find and interact with cach other when there is a common purpose. Circle Sense is an application, which detects the social activities of a person with the help of various types of sensor data. It identifies the social circle of a person by analyzing the patterns of social activities and the people present in those activities.

Affective computing is a technology, which recognizes, understands, and responds to the emotions of human beings. There are many parameters, which are considered while dealing with human effects such as facial expressions, speech, and body gestures. bad movements, and sleep patterns. One of the applications of affective computing is Cam an artificial pet dog, which is designed to interact with human beings and show affection and emotions. Many sensors and actuators are embedded in it. It provides emotion to the owner, encourages playful and active behavior, recognizes its owner, shows love for her, and increases the owner's communication with other people. support 

Health and Fitness

IoT appliances are really beneficial in the health and wellness domains. Many wearable devices are being developed, which monitor a person's health condition.

Currently, ToT sensors are being used to continuously monitor and record their health conditions and transmit warnings in case any abnormal indicators are found. If there is a minor problem, the IoT application itself may suggest a prescription to the patient. Tol Applications can be used in creating an Electronic Health Record (EIR), which is a record of all the medical details of a person. It is maintained by the health system. 

In the fitness sector, this is many applications that monitor how fit we are based on the tAN daily activity level. Smartphone accelerometer data can be used for activity detection by applying simple algorithms. For example, we can measure the number of steps taken and the amount of exercise done by using fitness trackers. Gym apparatus can be fitted with sensors to count the number of times an exercise is performed. For example, a smart mat can count the number of exercise steps performed on it. This is implemented using pressure sensors on the mat and then by analyzing the patterns of pressure, and the shape of the contact area. 

Smart Environment and Agriculture

Environmental parameters such as temperature and humidity are important for agricultural production. Sensors are used by farmers in the field to measure such parameters and this data can be used for efficient production. One application is automated irrigation according to weather conditions. The major application of IoT in agriculture is produced using greenhouses. Environmental parameters measured in terms of temperature, soil information, and humidity are measured in real-time and sent to a server for analysis. The results are then used to improve crop quality and yield. 

Air pollution is an important concern because it is changing the climate of the earth and degrading air quality. Vehicles cause a lot of air pollution. Vehicles are identified by RFID tags. RFID readers are placed on both sides of the road along with the gas sensors. By using this it is possible to identify and take action against polluting vehicles. 

Energy Conservation 

To set up modern electricity generation, transmission distribution, and consumption systems, A smart grid communication technology is used. This can save a lot of energy and help consumers better understand the flow of power and dynamic pricing. In a smart grid, power generation is distributed. There are sensors deployed throughout the system to monitor everything. It is a distributed network of microgrids. Microgrids generate power to meet the demands of local sites and transmit back the surplus energy to the central grid. Microgrids can also demand energy from the central grid in case of a shortfall. 

Some of the IoT applications in a smart grid are online monitoring of transmission lines for disaster prevention and efficient use of power in smart homes by having a smart meter for monitoring energy consumption. Smart meters read and analyze consumption patterns of power at regular and peak load times. This information is then sent to the server and also made available to the user. The generation is then set according to consumption patterns. In addition, the user can adjust her/his use so as to reduce costs.