Arduino is a small and inexpensive electronic board that allows you to connect to various external accessories (such as sensors) and create applications to use the data collected Another open-source hardware platform is Raspberry Pi. Raspberry Pi is a low-cost, credit card-sized computer that connects to a computer monitor or TV using HDMI, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It can run a host of operating systems, such as Raspbian (Debian Linux), Android, Windows 10, ToT Core, etc.

raspberry pi - overview

What is Raspberry Pi - Definition

Raspberry Pi 3 is the third generation of Raspberry Pi. The features of Raspberry Pi has
  • A 1.2GHZ 64-bit quad-core ARMV8 CPU 
  • 802.11n Wireless LAN 
  • Bluetooth 4.1 Low Energy (BLE) 

The powerful CPU coupled with Wireless LAN and Bluetooth 4.1 radio makes it an ideal candidate for IoT projects because multiple sensors can be connected to it simultaneously. In addition, the Raspberry Pi has a 40-pin GPIO (General Purpose I/0) connector for interfacing with external sensors. The Raspberry Pi Zero is the smallest Raspberry Pi ever made, and although it doesn't have a processor that's as powerful as the Pi 3, its small size is especially suited for embedded projects (such as wearables, etc.), where space is a premium.

One of the most popular OSs used for the Raspberry Pi is the Raspbian Operating system. The Raspbian OS is based on the Debian OS, optimized for the Raspberry Pi hardware. The easiest way to install the Raspbian OS for the Raspberry Pi is to download NOOBS from https://www.raspberrypi.org/help/noobs-setup/. NOOBS stands for New Out Of Box Software. 

Raspberry Pi was introduced in 2006. The main aim of Raspberry Pi is based on Atmel MATmega644 and it is designed for educational use and expected for Python. A Raspberry Pi is a credit-card-sized single-board computer, i.e. very small in size, which is developed in the United Kingdom (U.K) by a foundation called Raspberry Pi. The principle of this foundation is to promote the teaching of basic computer science in education institutes and also in developing countries.

The first generation of Raspberry (Pi 1) was released in the year 2012, which has two types of models namely model A and model B. This version has 256 MB of RAM that can run on Linux based desktop operating system, one USB port, and no ethernet port. Later on, A+ and B+ models were introduced in 2015. Raspberry Pi2 model B was released and after that Raspberry Pi3 model B was released in the market. 

The "Raspberry" name is a homage to computer companies in early times that were named after a fruit, like Apple, Apricot Computers, and Tangerine Computer Systems. The idea to make a small computer to run only the Python programming language is where the "Pi" derives from. IoT Raspberry Pi can be used in a wide variety of tasks. It's ideal and best-suitable for projects where there is a computer requirement but doesn't require much processing power.

Raspberry Pi can be plugged into a TV, or computer monitor, and it uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is user-friendly. It can do everything like a desktop computer. It can do like word processing and browsing. playing games etc. It is also used in many applications such as a wide array of digital maker projects, music machines, parent detectors 1o the weather station, and tweeting birdhouses with infrared cameras. 

All models feature a Broadcom System on a Chip (SOC: A system-on-chip a complex IC that integrates the functional elements into a single chip or chipset.). which includes chip graphics processing unit GPU(a Video Core IV), an ARM-compatible and CPU. The CPU speed ranges from 700 MHz to 1.2 GHz for the Pi 3 and onboard memory range from 256 MB to 1 GB RAM. An operating system is stored in secured digital SD cards and program memory in either the MicroSDHC or SDHC sizes. Most boards have one to four USB slots, composite video output, HDMI, and a 3.5 mm phone jack for audio. Some models have WiFi and Bluetooth.

The Raspberry Pi Foundation provides Arch Linux ARM and Debian distributions for download, and it supports Python as the main programming language, with support for BBC BASIC, Java, C, Perl, Ruby, PHP, Squeak Smalltalk, C++, etc. 

Internet Gateway Device

Internet Gateway Device facilitates route data approaching from the WSN network to the internet and Sends data coming from the internet to the WSN network. It is like a Wi-Fi router for the Internet of Things. In the internet gateway device, we use raspberry pi model B, which features a quad-core ARM Cortex- A7 CPU running at 900MHZ (for a 6x presentation improve on the first generation Raspberry Pi Model B+) and IGB of LPDDR2 SDRAM (for a 2x memory increase). And yes, there is total compatibility with Raspberry Pil we are secured. 

WSN Nodes 

A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of three main components; nodes, gateways, and software. The acquired information is wirelessly transmitted to the gateway, which provides a connection to the wired globe where we can collect, procedure, analyze, and present our measurement information using the software. 

This is all about IoT using Raspberry Pi. Currently, IoT is made up of a loose collection of different, purpose-built networks. For example, have multiple networks to control engine function, safety features, communication systems, and so on. Commercial and residential buildings also have various control systems for heating, venting, air conditioning (HVAC), telephone service, security, and lighting. 

In the growing 1OT, these networks and an IoT of others will be connected with additional security, analytics, and management capabilities. This will allow IoT to become even more powerful in what it can help people achieve.

Raspberry Pi Interface

  1. Serial - Serial interface on Raspberry Pi receives (Rx) and transmits (Tx) ni communication with serial peripherals. 
  2. Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) - SPI is a synchronous serial data protocol used t communicate with one or more peripheral devices. 
  3. 12C- 12C interface Pins on Raspberry Pi determines to connect hardware module 12C interface provides synchronous data transfer with 2 Pins : 
  • SDA (Data line) 
  • SCL (Clock line)