The internet of things or loT is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, and people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without the human need for human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. 

loT is the most important technology in our day-to-day life the internet of things helps people to live and work in a smarter way. IoT provides businesses with a real-time look into how their system exactly work, delivering insights into everything from the performance of machines to supply chain and logistic operations, loT also permit companies to automate processes and reduce labor costs, It reduces the waste and improves service delivery, making it less expensive to manufacture and deliver goods. It also provides offering transparency into customer transactions.

loT is a worldwide framework for enabling advanced services by interconnecting physical and virtual things based on existing information and communication technologies. A thing on the internet can be a person with a heart motor implant, an automobile that has a built-in sensor to alert the driver when tire pressure is low or it can be any other man-made object that can be assigned an IP (Internet Protocol) address and is able to transfer the data over the network.

loT enables the use of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to aid in making data collecting processes easier and more dynamic. The entire working process of loT starts with the device themselves, such as smartphones, digital watches, and electronic appliances, which securely communicate with the loT platform. The platforms collect and analyze the data from all multiple devices and platforms and transfer the most valuable data with applications to devices. 

What is IoT - Definition 

There is no universal definition of loT and anyone can see everything that the loT will fruitful mean in the longer term. We can say that IoT is omnipresent. IoT is said to be an umbrella. Term for a vast range of technologies applications and use-cases. IoT uses- cases are authorized by the connection of objects and devices which can be uniquely addressed via IP address and capture, transmit and receive data depending on their purpose. Now we can say that it is all about the data. So all technologies and systems in a loT scope are related to turning this data into knowledge; actions and decisions.

Industrial Internet of things (loT), the internet of services, consumes loT, (CloT). Industry 4.0, the Internet of Medical Things, the Internet of Everything (IOE), and many more terms are the rich variety of technologies under the loT umbrella. loT also has its own IoT technology stack that starts by connecting things, capturing the data, and communicating it and ends with the application. Connecting everyday things embedded with electronics, software, and sensors to the internet enabling to collection and exchange of data without human interaction is called the Internet of Things. The term "Things" in the Internet of Things refers to anything and everything in day-to-day life which is accessed or connected through the internet.

What are IOT - Definition
Fig - Definition of Internet of Things

Working of loT System

The IoT ecosystem is arranged into web-enabled smart devices that use embedded systems like processors, sensors, and communication hardware to collect, send and act on data they acquire from their environments. IoT devices share the sensor data they collect by connecting to an IoT gateway or other device where data is either sent to the cloud to be analyzed or analyzed locally. These devices communicate with other related devices and work on the information they get from one another. In fact, these devices can do almost work without human intervention, although humans can interact with these devices, for eg. to set them up, give them instructions or access the data. Networking, communication protocols and connectivity used in these web-enabled devices mostly depend on the specific IoT application deployed.

What are IOT - Definition - working of iot system

Fig - Working of IoT System

loT is an advanced automation and analytics system which deals with artificial intelligence. sensor, networking, electronic, cloud messaging, etc. to deliver complete systems for the product or services. The system created by loT has greater transparency, control, and performance. Cloud that contains all the data through which we connect all the things around us. For example, a house, where we can connect our home appliances such as air conditioner, light, etc. through each other, and all these things are managed on the same platform. Since we have a platform, we can connect our car, track its fuel meter, and speed level, and also track the location of the car. 

History of loT 

Firstly, Kevin Ashton, co-founder of the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) mentioned the Internet of things in a presentation. He made it to Procter & Gamble (P&G) in 1999, wanting to bring radio frequency ID (RFID) to the attention of P& G's senior management. Ashton named his presentation "Internet of things" to assimilate the new trend of 1999, the internet. MIT professor Neil Gershnfeld's book, when things start to think, was also seen in 1999. It didn't use the exact terms but specified a clear vision of where IoT was leading.

Although IoT was firstly introduced by Ashton, the idea of connected devices has been around since the 1970s; Under the monikers embedded internet and pervasive computing. a lot has developed from the convergence of wireless technologies, microelectromechanical systems (MEMSES), and the internet. IoT developed from M2M (Machine to Machine) communication i.e. machines connecting to each other via a network without human interaction. M2M mentions connecting the device to the cloud, managing it, and collecting data.

It will take M2M to the next level, loT is a sensor network of billions of smart devices that connect people, systems, and other applications to collect and share data. As its foundation, M2M provides the connectivity that enables IoT. 

The loT is a natural addition of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), a category of software application programs for process control, collecting data in real-time from remote locations to control equipment and conditions. SCADA systems incorporate hardware and software components./Hardware collects and feeds data into a computer that has SCADA software installed, where it is processed and introduced in a timely manner. The development of SCADA is like the late generation SCADA systems raised into the first-generation loT systems.

Consumer and Enterprise loT Applications 

There are several real-world applications of the internet of things, starting from consumer for and enterprise loT to manufacturing and industrial IoT (ITOT), IoT applications spread various verticals like automotive, telecom, and energy. For consumer applications, like smart homes that are furnished with smart thermostats, smart appliances, and connected heating, lighting, and electronic devices can be controlled remotely via computers and smartphones, or we can say that the CloT is where we find applications and use cases to track our personal assets. The IoT is used for consumer applications and consumer-oriented services. In consumer loT, data volumes and data communication needs are low. and limited. So there are many technologies of which some are specially designed for consumer applications, ranging from. smart.home connectively standard to special operating systems for wearables.

Wearable devices with sensors and software can gather and analyze user data, sending messages to other technologies about the users with the aim of making users' lives easier and more comfortable. This is also used for all sorts of consumer electronics such as the smart wristwear belonging to this category, along with all kinds of smart home appliances like connected parking door openers. Wearable devices are used for public safety such as improving first responder response time during emergencies by allowing optimized routes to a location. 

The potential and reality of IoT do not lie in the ability to connect loT-enabled objects nor in the embedded technologies and electronics such as sensors, actuators, and connectivity capabilities. IoT is used to hold insights from data, automate, digitize, optimize, and more mature stages transform processes, business models, and even industries in the scope of digital transformation. So we can say that things and objects with sensors and actuators are connected to the internet so they can collect, send and get data, leading to smarter solutions and also acting upon data.

Now we can understand the IoT with 5 phases regarding the added value to the business IoT is created by the information that is collected by the IoT devices:- 
  1. Create a phase, where devices or sensors gather information from the physical environment around them. The data from smart connected devices can be used to generate perceptions that can help businesses and customers. 
  2. Communicate phase, is where the data and events generated are sent through the network to the desired destination.
  3. The aggregate phase is where data collected are aggregated by the devices themselves. 
  4. Analyze phase, where experienced analytics the aggregated data can be used to generate basic patterns, and control and optimize processes. 
  5. Act phase, where satisfactory actions are performed based on the information created.